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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:tyxmmc.com.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该使用卧式加工中(zhong)心(xin)吗?——加工工件特征

加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心类型(xing)(xing)的(de)选(xuan)定需要考虑加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对象、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)范围(wei)和设备价格(ge)等因(yin)素(su),根据所选(xuan)零(ling)件族 (组)进行。如(ru)果您的(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件具有以下特(te)征,则(ze)应选(xuan)择(ze)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心:加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两面(mian)(mian)(mian)以上的(de)零(ling)件或(huo)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在(zai)四周呈(cheng)径向辐射状排列的(de)孔系(xi)、面(mian)(mian)(mian),如(ru)箱体类、壳体类零(ling)件等,应选(xuan)择(ze)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心;被加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件的(de)位置精度要求(qiu)(qiu)较高,宜选(xuan)用高精密(mi)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心;零(ling)件在(zai)一次(ci)装夹中需要完成多面(mian)(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时,可选(xuan)择(ze)立卧(wo)复合(he)式五面(mian)(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心。当然,上述各(ge)点(dian)也不是绝对的(de),一方(fang)面(mian)(mian)(mian)是由于加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心正朝着复合(he)化方(fang)向发展,另一方(fang)面(mian)(mian)(mian)选(xuan)型(xing)(xing)时要综(zong)合(he)考虑生产效率(lv)、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)要求(qiu)(qiu)和设备资金(jin)等因(yin)素(su),要以性(xing)(xing)价比来衡量选(xuan)型(xing)(xing)方(fang)案的(de)合(he)理性(xing)(xing)。

建议:采(cai)购用(yong)户需要根据加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)对象、加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)、加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)范(fan)围等特征来确定是(shi)否使用(yong)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)以及使用(yong)什么样的卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工(gong)作台(tai)尺寸

这是卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心的(de)(de)主参数,主要取决于典型(xing)零件(jian)的(de)(de)外廓尺(chi)(chi)寸、装(zhuang)(zhuang)夹(jia)(jia)方式等。应选择比(bi)典型(xing)零件(jian)外廓尺(chi)(chi)寸稍大(da)一些的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作台(tai),以便留(liu)出安装(zhuang)(zhuang)夹(jia)(jia)具(ju)所需的(de)(de)空(kong)间,保证零件(jian)在其上面能够顺利装(zhuang)(zhuang)夹(jia)(jia),此外还应考(kao)虑工(gong)(gong)(gong)作台(tai)的(de)(de)承载能力(li)、T形槽数量和尺(chi)(chi)寸等,小尺(chi)(chi)寸的(de)(de)比(bi)较通用,比(bi)如站内的(de)(de)卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等。

建议(yi):目(mu)前市场上的卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心工(gong)(gong)作台(tai)尺寸多为1000以下(xia)的,能够满(man)足(zu)大多数用户的需求。

(2)坐标轴行程

最基(ji)本(ben)的(de)坐标(biao)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)是(shi)X、Y、Z三轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou),其行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)和(he)工(gong)作台(tai)尺寸(cun)有(you)相(xiang)应的(de)比例关系,工(gong)作台(tai)面的(de)大(da)小(xiao)基(ji)本(ben)上确(que)定了加(jia)工(gong)空(kong)间(jian)的(de)大(da)小(xiao)。如个别零(ling)(ling)件的(de)尺寸(cun)大(da)于卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)时(shi),则必须(xu)要(yao)求(qiu)零(ling)(ling)件的(de)加(jia)工(gong)区(qu)域处于机床(chuang)的(de)行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)范围(wei)之(zhi)内,此外还要(yao)考虑零(ling)(ling)件是(shi)否与机床(chuang)交换刀具的(de)空(kong)间(jian)干(gan)(gan)涉(she)、与机床(chuang)防护罩等(deng)附(fu)件发(fa)生干(gan)(gan)涉(she)等(deng)系列(lie)问题(ti)。而对需(xu)要(yao)多(duo)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)联动加(jia)工(gong)的(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心 (如增(zeng)加(jia)回转坐标(biao)A、B、C或附(fu)加(jia)坐标(biao)U、V、W),如四(si)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)、五轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)联动卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心,这(zhei)就需(xu)要(yao)特殊订货(huo),同时(shi)必须(xu)对相(xiang)应配套(tao)的(de)编程(cheng)(cheng)软件、测量(liang)手段以及(ji)机床(chuang)价(jia)格等(deng)有(you)全面的(de)考虑和(he)安排。

建议:采购用户需要(yao)根(gen)据加(jia)工工件规格选择不同坐标轴行程(cheng)的卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心,多轴联(lian)动需要(yao)特殊定制(zhi)。

(3)主轴电动机(ji)功率与转矩

它反映(ying)了卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心(xin)的(de)(de)切削效率(lv)(lv),也从一个侧面(mian)反映(ying)了卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心(xin)的(de)(de)切削刚(gang)性和机(ji)床整体刚(gang)度。主轴电动(dong)机(ji)功(gong)率(lv)(lv)在同类规格(ge)的(de)(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心(xin)上(shang)可(ke)以有各(ge)种不同的(de)(de)配(pei)置(zhi),同类规格(ge)的(de)(de)主轴转速(su)不同的(de)(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心(xin),主轴电动(dong)机(ji)功(gong)率(lv)(lv)可(ke)以相(xiang)差很(hen)大。

建议:采购用(yong)户应(ying)根据自身典(dian)型零件(jian)毛坯余(yu)量大小、切(qie)削能力 (单位时(shi)间金属切(qie)削量)、要求达到的(de)加(jia)工精度(du)、实(shi)际能配置的(de)刀具(ju)等(deng)因(yin)素(su)综合选(xuan)择。

(4)主轴转速(su)与进给速(su)度

需(xu)要高速(su)(su)切削或超低(di)速(su)(su)切削时,应关注主(zhu)轴(zhou)的转(zhuan)速(su)(su)范围。特(te)别是高速(su)(su)切削时,既要有高的主(zhu)轴(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su),同时也(ye)要具(ju)备与主(zhu)轴(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su)相匹配的进给速(su)(su)度(du)。目(mu)前卧式加工中心高速(su)(su)化趋势发展(zhan)很快(kuai),主(zhu)轴(zhou)从(cong)每分钟几(ji)千转(zhuan)到(dao)几(ji)万转(zhuan),直线(xian)坐标快(kuai)速(su)(su)移动速(su)(su)度(du)从(cong)10—20/min上升到(dao)80m/min以上,当然其功(gong)能部件(jian)如(ru)电(dian)主(zhu)轴(zhou)、直线(xian)电(dian)动机、直线(xian)滚动导(dao)轨、主(zhu)轴(zhou)轴(zhou)承等及(ji)相配套的光栅尺、刀具(ju)等附(fu)件(jian)价格(ge)也(ye)都相应上升,甚至很昂贵。

建(jian)议:采购用(yong)户必(bi)须根(gen)据自身的技术能(neng)力(li)和配(pei)套能(neng)力(li)合(he)理(li)作出(chu)卧式加工中(zhong)心的合(he)理(li)选型。

(5)刀库容量

可以根据被加(jia)工(gong)零件的(de)工(gong)艺分析结果来确(que)定(ding)所(suo)需数量,通常以典型(xing)零件在一次装夹中所(suo)需刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)数量来确(que)定(ding)刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)的(de)容(rong)量,卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)以选用(yong)40把(ba)刀(dao)(dao)左(zuo)右(you)的(de)刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)为宜(yi)。同时要关(guan)注最(zui)大(da)(da)刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)直径(jing)与长度以及(ji)最(zui)大(da)(da)刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)重量等(deng)。用(yong)于FMC或FMS的(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin),应选择大(da)(da)容(rong)量刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku),甚(shen)至配置可交换刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)。

建议:普(pu)通卧式加(jia)工中心(xin)选(xuan)择40把刀左右的刀库即(ji)够用(yong),用(yong)于(yu)FMC或FMS的卧式加(jia)工中心(xin)应选(xuan)择大(da)容(rong)量刀库。

3我需要选用什么精(jing)度(du)的卧式(shi)加工中(zhong)心?——精(jing)度(du)的选定(ding)

加工中心(xin)的(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)度等(deng)级主(zhu)要(yao)根(gen)据典(dian)型零件关键(jian)部位(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)度来确定(ding)(ding)。其精(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)度主(zhu)要(yao)包括定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)度、重(zhong)复定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)度和铣圆(yuan)精(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)度,特(te)别(bie)(bie)是(shi)重(zhong)复定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)度,它反映了坐标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)的(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)性,是(shi)衡量该(gai)轴(zhou)是(shi)否稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)可靠工作的(de)(de)基本指标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)。特(te)别(bie)(bie)值得注意(yi)的(de)(de)是(shi),选型订货(huo)(huo)时(shi)必须全面分(fen)析,不能简单地看产品样本所列(lie)的(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)度数值,因为标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)不同、规定(ding)(ding)数值不同、检测(ce)方(fang)法不同,数值的(de)(de)含(han)义(yi)就不同。刊物(wu)、样本、合格证所列(lie)出的(de)(de)单位(wei)(wei)长度上允(yun)许的(de)(de)正负(fu)值(一(yi)般为正负(fu)0.05)常常是(shi)不明确的(de)(de),订货(huo)(huo)时(shi)要(yao)特(te)别(bie)(bie)注意(yi),一(yi)定(ding)(ding)要(yao)弄(nong)清是(shi)IOS(国(guo)(guo)际标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)化组织(zhi)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、VDI(德国(guo)(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、JIS(日本标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、NMTBA(美国(guo)(guo)机床制造商(shang)协会标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))还(hai)是(shi)NAS(美国(guo)(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))及GB(中国(guo)(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))等(deng),进(jin)而分(fen)析各(ge)种不同标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)所规定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)检测(ce)计算(suan)方(fang)法和检测(ce)环境条件,才不会产生误解(jie)。

铣圆(yuan)精(jing)度是(shi)综合评价卧式加工中心有关(guan)数控轴的(de)(de)伺服跟随(sui)运(yun)动特性和数控系统(tong)插(cha)补(bu)功能(neng)的(de)(de)主要指(zhi)(zhi)标之(zhi)一。不论典型零件(jian)是(shi)否有此需要,为了(le)将来可能(neng)的(de)(de)需要及更好地控制(zhi)精(jing)度,必须重(zhong)视这一指(zhi)(zhi)标。

要特别注意区别加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)度(du)(du)与(yu)机(ji)床(chuang)精(jing)度(du)(du)两个(ge)(ge)不同(tong)的(de)概念。将生产(chan)厂(chang)家样本(ben)上或产(chan)品(pin)合(he)格(ge)证(zheng)上的(de)位置(zhi)精(jing)度(du)(du)当作卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)度(du)(du)是错误的(de)。样本(ben)或合(he)格(ge)证(zheng)上标明的(de)位置(zhi)精(jing)度(du)(du)是加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心本(ben)身的(de)精(jing)度(du)(du),而加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)度(du)(du)是包括卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心本(ben)身所(suo)允许(xu)误差(cha)在内的(de)整(zheng)个(ge)(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺系(xi)统(tong)各种因素所(suo)产(chan)生的(de)误差(cha)总和。整(zheng)个(ge)(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺系(xi)统(tong)误差(cha)产(chan)生的(de)原因是很复杂的(de),很难用线(xian)性关系(xi)定(ding)量表达。选型时(shi),可参考工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序能力系(xi)数Cp的(de)评定(ding)方(fang)法来作为机(ji)床(chuang)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)度(du)(du)的(de)选型依(yi)据。一般而言,Cp应大于1.33。

站(zhan)内(nei)高精密的(de)几款卧式加工中(zhong)心(xin):MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱式卧式加工中(zhong)心(xin)性能都不错。

建议(yi):采(cai)购用户在挑选不(bu)同(tong)精(jing)度(du)的(de)卧(wo)式加工中心时(shi),需(xu)要考(kao)虑:不(bu)同(tong)标(biao)准对应(ying)的(de)单位长度(du)含(han)义(yi);重视铣圆精(jing)度(du)指标(biao);区别加工精(jing)度(du)和(he)机(ji)床精(jing)度(du)。

4我应该选(xuan)(xuan)择哪种数(shu)(shu)控系统?——数(shu)(shu)控系统的选(xuan)(xuan)定

数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)分为(wei)基本功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)与(yu)选(xuan)(xuan)择功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng),可以从操作方式(shi)(shi)、用(yong)户功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)、控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)方式(shi)(shi)、驱(qu)动形(xing)式(shi)(shi)、反(fan)馈形(xing)式(shi)(shi)、接口(kou)形(xing)式(shi)(shi)、检测(ce)与(yu)测(ce)量(liang)、报警与(yu)提示、故障(zhang)诊断等(deng)方面综合衡量(liang)。基本功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)是(shi)必(bi)须提供(gong)的(de),而(er)(er)只有当用(yong)户选(xuan)(xuan)择了选(xuan)(xuan)择功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)后(hou),厂(chang)家才会另(ling)(ling)行提供(gong)并另(ling)(ling)行加价(jia),且定(ding)价(jia)一般较(jiao)高。总体而(er)(er)言,数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)的(de)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)一定(ding)要(yao)(yao)(yao)根据加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)性(xing)(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)需(xu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)来(lai)选(xuan)(xuan)择,订购时既要(yao)(yao)(yao)把(ba)需(xu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)的(de)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)订全,不能(neng)(neng)(neng)遗漏,同时避(bi)免使用(yong)率不高而(er)(er)造成浪费,还需(xu)注意各(ge)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)之间的(de)关联性(xing)(xing)。另(ling)(ling)一方面,在(zai)可供(gong)选(xuan)(xuan)择的(de)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)中(zhong),如SIEMENS系(xi)(xi)统(tong)、FANUC系(xi)(xi)统(tong)、国产(chan)华(hua)中(zhong)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)等(deng),性(xing)(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)高低差别很(hen)大,价(jia)格(ge)亦相差很(hen)大,进口(kou)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)或国产(chan)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)亦决定(ding)其价(jia)格(ge)的(de)高低。总体上(shang)来(lai)看,法兰克(ke)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)性(xing)(xing)价(jia)比(bi)比(bi)较(jiao)高,国内卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)使用(yong)比(bi)例比(bi)较(jiao)高。站(zhan)内卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)使用(yong)法兰克(ke)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)的(de)也比(bi)较(jiao)多(duo),比(bi)如MH-800B 、 LH-500B都(dou)是(shi)比(bi)较(jiao)好的(de)选(xuan)(xuan)择。多(duo)台卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)选(xuan)(xuan)型时,应(ying)尽可能(neng)(neng)(neng)选(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)同一厂(chang)家的(de)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong),这(zhei)样(yang)操作、编程、维修都(dou)比(bi)较(jiao)方便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我(wo)需要选择几台卧式加(jia)工中心能达(da)到的(de)我(wo)的(de)产(chan)量要求(qiu)?——生(sheng)产(chan)能力的(de)估算

选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)时(shi),必(bi)须要(yao)(yao)考虑(lv)(lv)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)能(neng)达到的(de)生(sheng)产能(neng)力(li),即要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)定的(de)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)在(zai)一(yi)年之内能(neng)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)多少数(shu)量(liang)的(de)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)。要(yao)(yao)得到这些数(shu)据必(bi)须对每一(yi)种确定的(de)典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)进(jin)行加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi)和生(sheng)产节拍的(de)估算。一(yi)般步(bu)骤为:首(shou)先,根据已选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)定的(de)典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)进(jin)行工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)(yi)分析,初步(bu)确定一(yi)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)(yi)路线,在(zai)这条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)(yi)路线中(zhong)(zhong)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)出(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)准备(bei)在(zai)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上(shang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu);第(di)二,根据现用的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)(yi)参数(shu),估算出(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)每道(dao)在(zai)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上(shang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)的(de)单个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)时(shi)间;第(di)三(san),由每个单工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)时(shi)间计算出(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)定零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)在(zai)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上(shang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)的(de)总时(shi)间,进(jin)而计算出(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)年产量(liang)即生(sheng)产能(neng)力(li)。如(ru)果(guo)估算结果(guo)达不(bu)到目标值(zhi),但相差不(bu)大,则(ze)可以通过修(xiu)改工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)(yi)参数(shu)的(de)方法加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)以调整;如(ru)果(guo)相差很大,则(ze)应考虑(lv)(lv)增加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)台数(shu)的(de)配置。

建议:采(cai)购用户(hu)需(xu)要根据工(gong)(gong)件加工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)时和生(sheng)产(chan)节拍的估(gu)算,决定卧式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中心配备台数。

6卧(wo)式加工中心有好多选配的(de)(de)附(fu)件(jian)我应(ying)该(gai)如何选配?——其他功能部件(jian)及附(fu)件(jian)的(de)(de)选定

(1)坐标(biao)轴数和联(lian)动轴数

坐(zuo)标轴数和(he)联动(dong)轴数均应满(man)足典型零(ling)件(jian)加工(gong)要求。一般情(qing)况下,同厂家、同规(gui)格、同等精度(du)的(de)卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心,增(zeng)加一个(ge)标准坐(zuo)标轴,价格约增(zeng)加30%—50%。尽管(guan)增(zeng)加坐(zuo)标轴数可以强化加工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)功能(neng),是机床上档次的(de)标志之一,但最终(zhong)还是要在(zai)工(gong)艺(yi)要求和(he)资金条件(jian)下平衡决定。

(2)工(gong)作(zuo)台

卧式加工中心可(ke)配(pei)置(zhi)(zhi)用(yong)(yong)于(yu)分度的回(hui)转(zhuan)工作(zuo)台和数控回(hui)转(zhuan)工作(zuo)台,后者能够实(shi)现(xian)任意分度,作(zuo)为(wei)B轴与(yu)(yu)其他轴联动(dong)控制。回(hui)转(zhuan)工作(zuo)台配(pei)置(zhi)(zhi)与(yu)(yu)否以及如何配(pei)置(zhi)(zhi)必须以实(shi)际需要来确定,以经济、实(shi)用(yong)(yong)为(wei)目的。

(3)自(zi)动换刀装置 (ATC)

ATC的选择主要(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)换(huan)刀时间(jian)(jian)与可(ke)靠性(xing)。过(guo)分强(qiang)调换(huan)刀时间(jian)(jian)会使(shi)加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心的价(jia)格大幅(fu)度提高并使(shi)故障率上升。据(ju)统计,加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心的故障中(zhong)约有50%与ATC有关,因此(ci),在(zai)满足使(shi)用(yong)要(yao)求的前提下,尽量选用(yong)可(ke)靠性(xing)高的ATC,以(yi)降低故障率和整(zheng)机成(cheng)本

(4)必要的(de)附件、配(pei)套件

选(xuan)型时,还应注意选(xuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)一(yi)些(xie)(xie)配套件(jian)及附(fu)(fu)件(jian),尽(jin)量(liang)避免因缺少一(yi)个几万(wan)元就能购(gou)买的(de)(de)附(fu)(fu)件(jian)而影(ying)响卧式加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)正常运(yun)行(xing)。慎重选(xuan)择刀柄(bing)和刀具也(ye)是(shi)保证卧式加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)正常运(yun)行(xing)的(de)(de)关键(jian),最佳的(de)(de)选(xuan)择办法应是(shi)根据典型零件(jian)所需的(de)(de)品(pin)种和数量(liang)来确定(ding),并在(zai)使(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)中(zhong)陆续添置。在(zai)卧式加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)构成中(zhong),排屑装(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)置、防护装(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)置和对(dui)刀装(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)置 (如(ru)(ru)刀具预调仪)等(deng)均是(shi)必(bi)需的(de)(de),对(dui)一(yi)些(xie)(xie)尽(jin)管(guan)不(bu)是(shi)必(bi)需的(de)(de)配套件(jian),但如(ru)(ru)果价格不(bu)高,对(dui)使(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)带来很多方便,也(ye)应尽(jin)量(liang)选(xuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong),如(ru)(ru)附(fu)(fu)件(jian)铣头、储刀料架、运(yun)刀具车(che)、装(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)卸器等(deng)。

建议:配件越(yue)(yue)高,能实现的功能越(yue)(yue)多,但价格也(ye)越(yue)(yue)贵,采(cai)购用户需要根据加工需求酌情(qing)选配。

7卧(wo)式加(jia)工中(zhong)心选型时(shi)还(hai)有什(shen)么其他需(xu)要注意的(de)?——需(xu)要注意的(de)一些问题

(1)结(jie)构设计

加工中心对其(qi)床身(shen)、立(li)柱、工作台、主轴以(yi)及刀(dao)库等功能部件的(de)结(jie)构(gou)设计有着很高(gao)的(de)要求(qiu),以(yi)达到其(qi)高(gao)强度、高(gao)刚度、高(gao)抗振性和稳(wen)定性的(de)目的(de)。选型时,应特别注意把其(qi)结(jie)构(gou)作为一项重要的(de)具体内容来进(jin)行要求(qiu)与考虑。

(2)功能与加工(gong)的(de)适应性(xing)

虽(sui)然(ran)加工中心可以进行钻、扩(kuo)、铣、镗、铰、攻螺纹(wen)乃至车(che)(che)削 (如车(che)(che)铣复合加工中心)等多种加工,但是(shi)在具体(ti)(ti)选择时,还应根据(ju)具体(ti)(ti)需要来考虑(lv)机床的功(gong)能与加工是(shi)否相适应等问题。要注意以下几点(dian):

A、复杂曲线(xian)加(jia)工时,要(yao)(yao)考虑(lv)CNC是否(fou)有所需(xu)要(yao)(yao)的曲线(xian)插补(bu)功(gong)能,或(huo)选择什么方式(shi)逼近加(jia)工曲线(xian)并保证所要(yao)(yao)求的表(biao)面粗糙(cao)度。三维加(jia)工时,要(yao)(yao)考虑(lv)选择适合的刀具结(jie)构,还要(yao)(yao)考虑(lv)程(cheng)序编制(zhi)能力,如(ru)有必要(yao)(yao)则必须(xu)配备(bei)自(zi)动编程(cheng)装置(zhi)或(huo)后置(zhi)处理编程(cheng)装置(zhi)。

B、需要(yao)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)螺(luo)(luo)纹切(qie)(qie)削 (非攻(gong)螺(luo)(luo)纹方(fang)式)时(shi),不仅要(yao)看是(shi)(shi)否(fou)(fou)有(you)螺(luo)(luo)纹切(qie)(qie)削功(gong)(gong)能(neng)、螺(luo)(luo)旋线插(cha)补功(gong)(gong)能(neng)和主轴转(zhuan)动与进(jin)(jin)给(ji)同步功(gong)(gong)能(neng),还要(yao)考(kao)虑机(ji)床(chuang)是(shi)(shi)否(fou)(fou)有(you)径(jing)向进(jin)(jin)给(ji)装置、是(shi)(shi)否(fou)(fou)有(you)主轴在旋转(zhuan)方(fang)向上任意角(jiao)度位置准确定位功(gong)(gong)能(neng)。否(fou)(fou)则,仅在数控系统(tong)中用(yong)了螺(luo)(luo)纹切(qie)(qie)削功(gong)(gong)能(neng)仍(reng)然(ran)无法进(jin)(jin)行(xing)螺(luo)(luo)纹切(qie)(qie)削C、采用(yong)金刚铰、浮(fu)动镗和挤压加工等(deng)特种加工时(shi),既要(yao)考(kao)虑适(shi)(shi)宜的自动换刀的条件,又要(yao)考(kao)虑选择合适(shi)(shi)的刀具(ju)结构和切(qie)(qie)削用(yong)量(liang),应尽可能(neng)在购买主机(ji)时(shi)一并购置部分易损部件及其他(ta)附件等(deng)。

D、如果(guo)有(you)应用DNC、FMS、CIMS等(deng)的(de)规(gui)划,或要进(jin)行网络制造,则(ze)要注意(yi)通信(xin)(xin)功(gong)能(neng),应选择具(ju)有(you)RS—232、RS—485甚至MAP网络通信(xin)(xin)、CAN总线(xian)等(deng)接口的(de)系统。

(3)运转的(de)可(ke)靠(kao)性

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建(jian)议:采购用户在(zai)选型时,需要(yao)对(dui)卧式加工中(zhong)心整体的(de)结构设计、可靠性以及价加工适应性有(you)客观的(de)认识。


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