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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:tyxmmc.com.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)由主体、驱(qu)动(dong)系(xi)统和控制(zhi)系(xi)统三(san)个基(ji)本部(bu)分(fen)组(zu)成。按机(ji)(ji)器人结(jie)构分(fen)类为(wei)直(zhi)角(jiao)坐(zuo)标型(xing),机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)沿(yan)二维直(zhi)角(jiao)坐(zuo)标系(xi)移(yi)动(dong)。主体部(bu)分(fen)通(tong)常采(cai)用龙门式结(jie)构,由y向横(heng)(heng)梁与导(dao)轨、z向滑(hua)枕(zhen)、十(shi)字(zi)(zi)滑(hua)座(zuo)(zuo)、立柱、过渡连(lian)接板和基(ji)座(zuo)(zuo)等部(bu)分(fen)组(zu)成,z向的(de)直(zhi)线(xian)运动(dong)皆(jie)为(wei)交流伺服电动(dong)机(ji)(ji)通(tong)过蜗(wo)轮减速器驱(qu)动(dong)齿(chi)轮与y向横(heng)(heng)梁、z向滑(hua)枕(zhen)上(shang)固定的(de)齿(chi)条作滚动(dong),驱(qu)动(dong)移(yi)动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)沿(yan)导(dao)轨快速运动(dong)。移(yi)动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)为(wei)质(zhi)量较轻的(de)十(shi)字(zi)(zi)滑(hua)座(zuo)(zuo)和z向滑(hua)枕(zhen),滑(hua)枕(zhen)采(cai)用由铝合金拉(la)制(zhi)的(de)型(xing)材。横(heng)(heng)梁采(cai)用方钢型(xing)材,在横(heng)(heng)梁上(shang)安装有导(dao)轨和齿(chi)条,通(tong)过滚轮与导(dao)轨接触,整个机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)都悬挂在其上(shang)。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由(you)于桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)度快,加速(su)度大(da)(da),加减(jian)速(su)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)短(duan)。当输(shu)送(song)较重的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)时(shi),惯量大(da)(da),因(yin)此(ci),伺服(fu)(fu)(fu)驱动(dong)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)要有(you)足够(gou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)驱动(dong)和制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能力,支撑元(yuan)件(jian)也(ye)要有(you)足够(gou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)刚度及强度。只有(you)这样,才能使伺服(fu)(fu)(fu)电(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)满足桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)(gao)响应、高(gao)(gao)(gao)刚度及高(gao)(gao)(gao)精度要求。在(zai)(zai)选择(ze)合适伺服(fu)(fu)(fu)电(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情况(kuang)下(xia),根据(ju)(ju)(ju)物料运(yun)动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距离(li)和运(yun)行节拍,计(ji)(ji)算出伺服(fu)(fu)(fu)系统的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)位移(yi)和轨迹(ji),对(dui)(dui)驱动(dong)器PID参数进行动(dong)态调整。桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)根据(ju)(ju)(ju)接(jie)收到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)位移(yi)、速(su)度指令,经变化(hua)、放大(da)(da)并(bing)调整处理后,传递(di)给运(yun)动(dong)单元(yuan),通过(guo)光纤传感(gan)器对(dui)(dui)运(yun)行状态进行实时(shi)检(jian)测,在(zai)(zai)高(gao)(gao)(gao)速(su)搬运(yun)过(guo)程中,运(yun)动(dong)部件(jian)在(zai)(zai)极短(duan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)内到(dao)达给定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)度,并(bing)能在(zai)(zai)高(gao)(gao)(gao)速(su)行程中瞬间(jian)(jian)准(zhun)停,通过(guo)高(gao)(gao)(gao)分(fen)辩率绝对(dui)(dui)式编码器的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)插补运(yun)算,控制(zhi)(zhi)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械误差(cha)和测量误差(cha)对(dui)(dui)运(yun)动(dong)精度的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影响。由(you)于被(bei)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)不(bu)同(tong),质(zhi)量也(ye)不(bu)同(tong),因(yin)此(ci),桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)有(you)多种规格和系列。在(zai)(zai)选择(ze)时(shi),根据(ju)(ju)(ju)被(bei)输(shu)送(song)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)质(zhi)量,加工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)节拍来(lai)选取。但(dan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)手(shou)臂,夹(jia)持方式,则根据(ju)(ju)(ju)被(bei)输(shu)送(song)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)形状、结(jie)构及机(ji)(ji)(ji)床夹(jia)具定夹(jia)方式来(lai)设计(ji)(ji)(见图2)。

机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)能够借助(zhu)可(ke)编程序(xu)来(lai)处理和(he)(he)执(zhi)行任务。机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)主要(yao)(yao)由(you)手(shou)(shou)图 1 臂、回转装(zhuang)置、运动(dong)部(bu)件及驱动(dong)部(bu)件组成(cheng)。通过对工件外(wai)(wai)形或工件上定(ding)(ding)位(wei)支撑点定(ding)(ding)位(wei)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)工件。例如(ru),在汽车(che)发动(dong)机(ji)(ji)加工柔性自动(dong)线物流(liu)输送中,桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)的夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模块(kuai)会根据缸体(ti)、缸盖、曲轴等工件的外(wai)(wai)形特点,选取(qu)不(bu)同(tong)的定(ding)(ding)位(wei)和(he)(he)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)方式。柔性机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)上采(cai)(cai)用(yong)气缸和(he)(he)电机(ji)(ji)进行定(ding)(ding)位(wei)和(he)(he)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模块(kuai)的切换驱动(dong),一套机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)可(ke)完成(cheng)不(bu)同(tong)品(pin)种(zhong)的工件搬运工作。夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)模块(kuai)可(ke)根据产品(pin)质量和(he)(he)外(wai)(wai)形的大小(xiao)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)系列化设(she)计,机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)上的夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)模块(kuai)安装(zhuang)方式相(xiang)同(tong),针对不(bu)同(tong)系列的工件,只需切换相(xiang)应的夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)模块(kuai)即可(ke),满(man)足快速切换的需要(yao)(yao)。这(zhei)样,当(dang)加工不(bu)同(tong)品(pin)种(zhong)的工件,只须变换夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模块(kuai)就可(ke)实(shi)现,提高了(le)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)的柔性化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线桁架机械手(shou)输送装(zhuang)置的发展及现(xian)状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展,经历(li)了(le)刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)两个(ge)时代。就(jiu)目前而(er)言(yan), 在(zai)(zai)国内二者均有之。刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)为棘轮(lun)棘爪(zhua)、摆杆、抬起(qi)步(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等(deng)(deng)(deng)形式(shi)。随着(zhe)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展,由(you)其(qi)组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)替代组(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),它以(yi)适(shi)应小批量多(duo)品(pin)种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优点,得到市(shi)场(chang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认可(ke),并称其(qi)为柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。这种(zhong)以(yi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),就(jiu)其(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)或(huo)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)带依然为刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这类柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓是(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当今的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)又有了(le)飞跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)形式(shi)以(yi)刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手)并存,或(huo)纯柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),即输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系统(tong)全(quan)(quan)部(bu)(bu)(bu)由(you)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手组(zu)成(cheng),这是(shi)真正(zheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),即主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系统(tong)也柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)高(gao)速加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)配以(yi)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),又称之为敏捷(jie)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)敏捷(jie)制(zhi)造(zao)系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)组(zu)成(cheng)部(bu)(bu)(bu)分(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)采用桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)后(hou)(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距可(ke)根(gen)据(ju)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)(zhi)随意改变(bian),自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)之间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)(zhuang)位置(zhi)(zhi)不再象刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)那样,按照输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距或(huo)步(bu)距倍数的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要(yao)(yao)求进行严格(ge)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)(zhuang),且(qie)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)速度也可(ke)根(gen)据(ju)生产(chan)节(jie)拍及输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距离而(er)改变(bian)。而(er)真正(zheng)体现柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)一(yi)面是(shi),当被加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)零件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)产(chan)品(pin)改变(bian)后(hou)(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)部(bu)(bu)(bu)分(fen)不会不适(shi)应而(er)全(quan)(quan)部(bu)(bu)(bu)更换,只要(yao)(yao)改变(bian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)序和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手局部(bu)(bu)(bu)结构即可(ke)。采用桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)更先(xian)进的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)面是(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)整体的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智能化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)协调统(tong)一(yi)。因此,桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手才(cai)在(zai)(zai)当今柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上越来越多(duo)地(di)被采用,使整个(ge)生产(chan)过(guo)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)通过(guo)信息流系统(tong)进行控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)。在(zai)(zai)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)和(he)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),所(suo)需各种(zhong)信息收集(ji)、处理(li)、反馈(kui),并通过(guo)电子计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)其(qi)他控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(液压(ya)、气压(ya)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)等(deng)(deng)(deng)),对(dui)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)或(huo)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)设备(bei)实行分(fen)级控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)。信息流系统(tong)分(fen)为由(you)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)央管理(li)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单(dan)元控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各数控(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)以(yi)及信息传送(song)(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)成(cheng)。目前,汽车制(zhi)造(zao)业(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)发(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体、缸盖及曲(qu)轴等(deng)(deng)(deng)大(da)批量关(guan)键零件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)都(dou)采用了(le)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(见(jian)图3)。

2. 国内外的差距(ju)

当下(xia),我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan)很(hen)快,技术(shu)(shu)水平(ping)有(you)了(le)很(hen)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)提高,与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)差距变(bian)得越(yue)来越(yue)小,甚(shen)至(zhi)有(you)些机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外相比已经没有(you)什么差距。特别(bie)(bie)是国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家重大(da)科技专(zhuan)项的(de)(de)(de)开(kai)展(zhan),为我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)上档次上水平(ping)提高了(le)加(jia)(jia)(jia)速度,成(cheng)绩显而易(yi)见。加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)这几(ji)年发展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)特别(bie)(bie)快,但柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)技术(shu)(shu)水平(ping)和(he)档次,较国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)差距还很(hen)明(ming)显,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外采用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)较为普遍,而国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)却为数不多(duo),国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)庞(pang)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)汽(qi)车生产市场所采用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)带(dai)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),大(da)多(duo)从国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外进(jin)口。如无锡柴油发动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)缸体缸盖柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)由(you)德国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公司总承包,由(you)BZ800加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心、GROB专(zhuan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧(ning)紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在线(xian)检(jian)具、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)成(cheng)。输(shu)(shu)送(song)采用(yong)空中(zhong)(zhong)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)输(shu)(shu)送(song)。仅(jin)以汽(qi)车制(zhi)造(zao)业(ye)而言,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)(nei)生产的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),采用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)屈指(zhi)可数。大(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)和(he)沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)等生产出了(le)该方面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),并(bing)在生产实(shi)际(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)得到了(le)应用(yong)。图4是大(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)生产的(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸体加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)。加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)两种缸体,分(fen)别(bie)(bie)为四(si)缸和(he)六(liu)缸,其输(shu)(shu)送(song)采用(yong)空中(zhong)(zhong)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)和(he)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)两端为机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等形式。桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)两个(ge),一个(ge)上料(liao),一个(ge)下(xia)料(liao)。它(ta)的(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)功(gong),标志着我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产由(you)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)开(kai)始向国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)水准迈(mai)进(jin)。

上述提(ti)及的(de)只是(shi)数(shu)量上的(de)比较,其实真正的(de)原因还是(shi)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)技术水平与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)有着一(yi)定的(de)差(cha)距。柔性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动线(xian)采用的(de)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou),也是(shi)从国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)进(jin)口的(de)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)。那(nei)时(shi),国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内还没(mei)有专(zhuan)门生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)厂家(jia)(jia)。如(ru)今,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内巨一(yi)等(deng)一(yi)些桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)厂家(jia)(jia)的(de)涌出,为(wei)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)柔性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动线(xian)带(dai)来(lai)了希(xi)望,进(jin)而缩小了与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)在生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)方面的(de)差(cha)距,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)在柔性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动线(xian)的(de)应用也越来(lai)越多,从而打破国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)市场被外(wai)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)人(ren)的(de)垄(long)断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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